If you were to see a newspaper headline such as “Breathing Jumps in Beijing, Even with Pollution,” you’d think it awfully odd. After all, Beijing’s population is rising, and everyone breathes as long as they can. More people, more breathing. Pollution doesn’t diminish breathing’s popularity.

You’d be right that such a headline would be odd, even if the headline appeared in one of the world’s great newspapers; say, the New York Times. Yet exactly that oddity appeared, in the Times, when 2015 was still crisp and new: “2014 Auto Sales Jump in U.S., Even With Recalls.”

Don’t worry. This essay isn’t about illogic in journalism. It’s about illogic that pollutes business, too. It’s about a dragon I thought I slew not long ago in Success Is In a Word. (Another headline: “World Doesn’t Heed Indignant Strategist.”)

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Have you seen the recent commercial by Weight Watchers, dubbed My Butt? It’s a beauty. I admit, when I read about it in the USA Today article “Weight Watchers: Butts are in for 2015”, I was male-curious. Sorry, evolution gave my brain an instinctive admiration for the female derriere. But when you watch the ad and read about the strategy behind it, you realize there is much more than meets the eye behind the behinds.

The story of how Weight Watchers came about to run the ad featuring female butts through a woman’s life is instructive of how strategy changes take effect in real life. Weight Watchers was founded on the premise that people who want to diet will find a structured program both convenient and supportive and will therefore be less price-sensitive. That has been true for many years as WW became a successful giant. On the way it used celebrities as the face of diet. That marketing mindset comes naturally to consumer-oriented companies in this field. Nutrisystem did the same with Marie Osmond, and who among baby boomers doesn’t remember Jenny Craig’s Valerie Bertinelli with great fondness?

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“Modular economy”? What, the economy now comes in easy-to-assemble pieces from Ikea?

Yes, except for the Ikea part. And it makes a difference in strategy for everyone from entrepreneurs to investors to competitors.

There was a time when vertical integration was in vogue. Ford, for example, could transform raw materials out of the ground into finished vehicles at its gargantuan (1½ square miles!) River Rouge Complex.1 Vertical integration is attractive because you control everything and it’s hard for competitors to duplicate. The downside is that it can be hugely expensive, difficult to modify or update, and hard to manage. Ford found it so. Other than a 3,000-place parking lot for a nearby Ford facility, the old Rouge was gone as of 2008.

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